The Biblical Meaning of Wolves in Dreams

If you have experienced seeing wolves in dreams, you can easily be forgiven for thinking that something bad is about to happen to you and your family. The good new is that you only need to look for the biblical meaning of wolves in dreams to gain some sort of reassurance.

You may even be under the impression that bad times have already come.

After all, wolves, generally speaking, represent themes such as survival, the importance of family, personal independence, the need for protection, personal power, wisdom, strength, and the awareness of one’s weaknesses.

It is no surprise that a lot of people consider wolves their spirit animals for better or worse.

In fact, in Native American lore, wolves hold a special place of respect because it does touch on the themes outlined above.

The Biblical or Spiritual Dimensions of Wolf Dream Images

The Biblical or Spiritual Dimensions of Wolf Dream Images

Spiritually wolves represent our inner instincts and animal nature within the context of interpersonal relationships.

I know that’s quite a mouthful.

But you have to understand that when you are dealing with other people, there is always going to be a conflict between who you really are, what people say you are, how you behave, and how people think you should behave.

Think of human identity as a series of layers or even masks.

You are different people to different individuals at different times at different places in your life.

Most people are able to manage this reality quite well.

In fact, we can get so used to swapping one mask for another that we lose sight of the fact that we’re playing a role or even wearing a mask.

The Biblical implication of this is that the Universe recognizes the need for roles.

It only demands that we be aware of our roles and how we play them out.

As Luke 10: 3 says:

“Go your ways; behold, I send you forth as lambs among wolves….”

So understand your role and understand the roles of others around you and how these dynamics can affect who you think you are and how you think you should act around other people and in certain contexts.

In this type of situation, themes like your personal instincts and intuition can sometimes clash with ideas of loyalty, friendship, teamwork, camaraderie, and the need to be part of something bigger than yourself.

It also indicates a sense of competition or even a threat to your personal integrity, especially when it comes to leadership.

We all like to think that we are our own bosses, but deep down inside, we want to be led.

This contrast or internal conflict is what drives a lot of people to do things and say things that they would come to regret later on.

Wolves are our spirit animals to the extent that they are an interesting mix of wildness, ferocity, and the need to survive while operating in a pack.

Put simply, you have to die a little bit for you to gain the benefits of being in a group.

This sacrifice benefits everybody because if everybody were just left to their own ambitions, desires, lusts, and needs, it’s every person for himself.

It doesn’t take a genius to figure out how that would pan out.

Just as wolves can be very loving and protective of each other, they can also be very vicious, merciless, and unforgiving when it comes to those who don’t belong to the pack.

There is this conflict there, and the Bible draws our attention to what a role is.

Be aware of your role and how you are with other people because you are coming forth as a lamb among wolves.

But Jesus conquered death, not by pushing back, not by being the toughest man alive, but by dying. That’s how He took away the sting of death.

And this contrast between what we want and what we feel we should be doing or what the right way is what generally animates our life.

So understand that there is this conflict between the danger that’s inside you and the need for you to control it.

Harness it so that it works for you instead of against you.

The Contextual Meaning of Wolf Dreams

The Contextual Meaning of Wolf Dreams

Now that you have a clear idea of the general themes behind a wolf dream symbology, pay close attention to get closer to the specific meaning of the specific dream that you just had at this point in time in your life.

You have to be aware of the following factors.

Take note of the appearance of the wolf.

Is it an old wolf or a young one?

Is it a puppy?

Pay close attention to its behavior.

Is it protecting?

Is it acting nervous?

Is it lashing out in defensiveness?

Or, is it a flat-out aggressor?

These are very different forms of behavior that lead to different interpretations.

Finally, wolves are pack animals.

It’s very easy to dismiss them as simply just one unit of a larger hole, not much different from an ant.

In your dream, pay close attention to the specific wolf that appeared.

Does it seem to have its own personality, or does it play up to what you think a wolf should behave and look like?

The more unique its “personality” is, the more you should pay attention because it appears that this type of wolf dream is going to be different from the standard interpretation of dreams that have this motif.

So with all of that said, here are some context-specific wolf dreams.

What Does It Mean to Dream of Black Wolves

What Does It Mean to Dream of Black Wolves

If you see a pack of black wolves moving together closely — maybe circling around you or growling menacingly — your subconscious is trying to let you know that you have a shadow side to your personal life.

The psychologist Carl Jung calls this the Shadow Self.

Think of your highest virtues and values.

Think of how you present yourself to others and the things that you hold in high esteem when it comes to behavior or ethical standards.

Now imagine the complete polar opposite. It’s easy to be disgusted.

It is tempting to just flat-out say:

“That is not me.

That is horrific.

It’s horrible.

It has nothing to do with me!”

Well, you have to embrace it because this negative or opposite image that you feel you don’t want anything to do with actually animates the positive image or the positive Self that you try to model your life after.

If you lose sight of this Shadow Self or you trick yourself into thinking that it doesn’t even exist, then don’t be surprised if you get lost and confused along your path.

You cannot understand the concept of light if you have no clue what darkness is.

You will not have the desire for Heaven if you have no fear of Hell.

It may sound simplistic, but this is how the human mind works to a very human yet animalistic degree.

We are all studies in contrast.

And the more we deny that we have a Shadow Self, the more we are doomed to walk at some point in the Shadow.

What Does a White Wolf Dream Mean?

What Does a White Wolf Dream Mean?

On the other end of the equation, when you see a white wolf with black eyes, this indicates purity and either the process of transformation or the need for such a change in your life.

A white wolf can also represent a new beginning in some area of your life.

It could be a relationship.

It could be the way you view your body and your overall health.

It can also be a new way of thinking about your career or your relationship with money.

Whatever the case may be, a white wolf means a return to purity.

Think of it as some cosmic reset button that somehow, someway, got triggered in your life, and now you are set for a new journey.

Don’t get too excited, though, because as awesome as a new journey may seem, it also indicates letting go of the past.

As you probably already know, one of the scariest things you can ask a person to do is to change.

Now keep in mind that this interpretation focuses on a white wolf that has black eyes.

In other words, it’s a normal wolf.

It’s not suffering from albinism.

Now, if you see a white wolf when its eyes are red, that’s an albino, so you should interpret that as you would a typical black wolf.

What Does It Mean to Dream Of Yourself as a Lone Wolf?

What Does It Mean to Dream Of Yourself as a Lone Wolf?

Your subconscious is detecting that you feel isolated.

To people who define themselves based on relationships, this can be one of the scariest experiences in the world.

Since you think that the group that you belong to accounts for your personal meaning and your worth as a person, you are justified in feeling horrified.

Let the horror sink in!

Let the fear that you are experiencing create a sense of urgency because this is actually an opportunity.

When you see yourself as a lone wolf cut off from the pack, your subconscious is trying to communicate to you that now is the time to develop a sense of independence.

You are not your family name.

You are not your job.

You are not the corporation that you work with.

You are not your network of friends.

You are not the part of town you live in.

You are not your job.

Fill in the blanks!

Ruminate on what matters, and let me give you the spoiler.

What matters is you!

But since you insist on defining yourself based on how connected you are with everybody else or how connected your identity is with something “bigger, larger, and more meaningful,” you’re just robbing yourself of power.

You’re also robbing yourself of self-knowledge, self-awareness, or any semblance of real identity.

This requires self-reliance on a mental and emotional level.

When you see yourself as a lone wolf, please understand that you have the hardware that you need to survive.

You are smart enough, resourceful enough, and you definitely have an infinite store of intuition if you should choose.

Unfortunately, we have often defined ourselves so much in terms of group identity that these things that I’ve just listed are the first to go.

We lose sight of them.

We think that we don’t even have them, so we go back to the mindset of a child: dependence, lack of competence, and ultimately lack of confidence.

And how do those types of people act when things start to change, and their old world starts to crumble?

Take a wild guess.

They lash out.

They become aggressors.

And when you call them out on it, they try to play themselves off as victims.

Don’t be afraid of the lone wolf.

In most cases, it is exactly what you need to establish real confidence and internal security in your life.

What Is the Spiritual Meaning of Two Wolves or a Pack of Wolves in a Dream?

What Is the Spiritual Meaning of Two Wolves or a Pack of Wolves in a Dream?

A wolf pack shows that you have good friends.

A wolf pack, by instinct and by experience, involves members who are willing to die for each other.

For this to work, everybody must know their roles.

And it is very important to understand how this interdependence is centered on a deep and profound, and ultimately instinctual love for each other.

If you’re looking for the Biblical meaning of a wolf pack in terms of this dynamics, you need to look no further than John 15:12:

“This is my commandment: love each just as I have loved you.”

That passage from John highlights the group’s inner dynamics and loyalty that is not subjective.

It’s easy to love others based on our subjective needs and standards.

But in reality, you’re not really showing love.

You feel some sort of love for another person or for your friends, but viewed objectively based on how you behave, people might not see you as a loving person.

Do you know somebody like this?

John 15:12 highlights the fact that if we are truly serious about our emotional commitments to others, then our actions must comply with this certain standard, and that standard is not us.

The sad reality is that most people like to be judged by their intention.

It’s internal, and it is something that they can control.

That’s how they play a con game with the world.

But the world cannot operate that way because everybody’s intentions and motivations vary, and a lot of it is hidden.

We’re all basically left trusting each other’s word.

Thankfully, there is an alternative.

We can judge each other based on an objective standard, and Jesus was saying:

“This is my commandment: love each other just as I have loved you.”

Pay close attention to the reference “just as I have loved you.”

Jesus said the highest love is for a friend to give up his life for his other friends, and this is exactly what’s happening with the wolf pack.

Everybody knows their roles, and that’s why at the very least, their sexual freedom is given up.

In a wolf pack, only the alpha male and female get to mate.

Everybody else plays support roles, and they cannot mate.

Genetically speaking, they have committed suicide, at least up to the extent that they belong to the pack.

That’s a big sacrifice, and Jesus is talking about sacrifice.

That is the essence of love.

Because in our modern world, we like to define love based on what we can get.

We focus on the good times.

We focus on what we give each other.

But at the end of the day, real love can be only answered by this question:

How much are you willing to give up?

Now we know the standard because it is objective.

So when you see a pack of wolves, and that’s the central focus of your dream, this is the central motif that you should wrap your head around.

What am I willing to sacrifice?

What do I truly believe in?

What Does It Mean to Dream of a Wolf Attacking You or a Wolf Running Toward You?

What Does It Mean to Dream of a Wolf Attacking You or a Wolf Running Toward You?

It’s easy to confuse a wolf running towards you as a sign of attack.

After all, if you see those fangs and those eyes, you can’t help but be filled with fright.

Most people would panic.

But in reality, when you see such aggression up close and personal, your dream is actually trying to draw your attention to your own aggressive drives.

As you probably already know, we tend to be hurt the most by those who are closest to us.

When people let you into their hearts, it’s very easy to step on toes.

It’s very easy to push buttons you shouldn’t be pushing.

But we can’t help it!

We’re selfish.

We see the world only through our own eyes, and this is the internal dynamic between friends, family members, and being a member of any larger group of people.

Again, there’s this conflict between your aggressive internal drive and your internal nature and everything else.

And this is really one of the biggest themes in life.

How do you bridge the two?

How do you remain part of a group while at the same time being true to yourself?

This is where a little bit of sacrifice comes in, but also you have to pay attention to self-awareness.

Because eventually, this will manifest itself. It could be a friend sharing a word with you.

It could be a co-worker.

You have to know how to act when your own internal issues are made manifest by situations where people let you know about your external behavior.

When you see a wolf attacking you in your dream, it indicates waking up to this conflict and the natural suspicion by somebody in that context of malicious intent.

The surprising part is a lot of the time, the malicious intent is on our part.


We want it our way, or everybody else takes the highway.

There’s a part of us that never really grew up past the toddler stage.

Have you ever dealt with a toddler?

If you’re a parent, you know that the world revolves around your child.

But eventually, your child has to grow, and the same goes for you!

If you still have these toddler instincts when it comes to your emotions or the way you frame your personal story as it relates to other people, then there is quite a bit of growing up to do.

This conflict often creates malicious intent because that inner child doesn’t want to grow up.

That’s why a wolf attack dream often depicts danger that is lurking, but it is internal danger.

It is psychological and emotional in nature.

What Does It Mean to Dream of a Wolf Chasing You?

What Does It Mean to Dream of a Wolf Chasing You?

To dream of a wolf chasing you, it means that something that you’ve been trying to avoid or something that you know is controlling you is finally unavoidable.

Things are coming to a head.

If you suffer from any kind of addiction, there will be a point where you will be presented with a situation where you either have to stare it in the face and do something about it.

Or, double your efforts at covering it up, spinning it, lying to yourself about it, and basically doubling down on whatever it was you’ve been doing to cope with it.

This dream image can also indicate a sense of manipulation.

Maybe at some point, your eyes will be opened to realize that somebody who is emotionally close to you is emotionally close precisely because they can manipulate you, control you, or otherwise use you to their advantage.

This does not have anything to do with money.

The payoff can be emotional or even symbolic. In fact, the people that you need to deal with and be most afraid of are people who do things and often suffer losses for principle — their principles.

Finally, a wolf chasing you can indicate that somebody or something is threatening your values.

Use these motifs to try to figure out different facts in your life, and see how those facts fall into this narrative.

You’d be surprised at what you will find.

What Does It Mean to See a Lone Wolf Howling?

What Does It Mean to See a Lone Wolf Howling?

If you see a lone wolf howling, this can indicate that you need to listen more to your inner intuition.

It may turn out that the main reason why you keep making the same decision is that you second-guess yourself too easily.

In hindsight, your first hunch tends to be the correct one.

When you see an image of a lone wolf howling, possibly with a meme as a background, your subconscious is trying to draw your attention to your need to reclaim your authority over your emotional and spiritual resources.

In other words, listen to yourself more to the point that you trust yourself more.

This is how you lose your glory.

In many cases, you never had the glory, to begin with, because you didn’t trust yourself enough.

Wolves howling represent or communicate to us themes of lost glory.

As Psalm 51:12 says:

“Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation; and uphold me with thy free spirit.”

Listen to yourself more and your need for spiritual guidance.

It may turn out that that God-shaped hole in your life is empty precisely because you’re trying to put things in it.

You’re not supposed to put material things into spiritual voids.

What Does It Mean to Dream of a Blue-Eyed Wolf?

What Does It Mean to Dream of a Blue-Eyed Wolf?

If you see this image, you might easily be forgiven for thinking that what you’re looking at is a Siberian Husky.

In reality, this image is communicating to you the fact that you need to be more aware of those around you, especially your leaders.

In reality, they are not what they appear to be.

They are not what you think they are.

They are not what other people say they are.

The Bible has a phrase for such leaders.

They’re called “false prophets,” and they are so persuasive that their false signs trick a lot of people.

As Matthew 7:15–23 says:

“Beware of false prophets who come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravenous wolves.”

They know how to control their internal wolf, and the way they control it is through manipulation, hypocrisy, and control.

But understand that they are still wolves inside, and this is what makes them strong.

Their sheep’s clothing is intended primarily for people like you to take you in, to fill your head with all sorts of junk, then ultimately, when all is lost, to lead you to slaughter.

Of course, this is not literal.

The slaughter usually takes the form of money or political favors or political payback.

A blue-eyed wolf can also be sending messages regarding yourself.

Maybe you are not all that clear about your sexuality.

Maybe there’s something about you that doesn’t sit well with you.

Pay attention to your thoughts.

Do they scare you?

Instead of trying to put up walls around it, try to listen more to yourself and try to understand what you are really trying to say to yourself.

Sometimes you get so caught up in that imagery that you lose sight of the real meaning.

The Positive Meaning of a Wolf in the Spiritual Realm

The Positive Meaning of a Wolf in the Spiritual Realm

As you can probably tell, after having read some of the posts on this blog, there’s really no such thing as a 100% purely negative dream.

Wolves, just like other dream symbols, can also have positive meanings.

I’ve already touched on these in an earlier section, but let me emphasize them here.

If you see a wolf in your dream and it is the central motif of your nighttime vision, this indicates personal power, personal strength, and personal tenacity.

Put simply, you may be going through some tough times or times of confusion.

It’s very easy to make decisions that you will come to regret later on.

The reason why people often stumble and make the wrong call when they are otherwise capable of making the right ones is that they’ve lost sight of their personal power, strength, and ability to hang on.

You have those things.

Just focus on your last success.

Focus on the fact that you’re still here.

Focus on the fact that you haven’t given up.

You have it in you, so let that wild side give you the strength but keep it under control.

A caged wolf can give you internal strength, but don’t let it go free and get the better of you.

The Physical Symbolism of Wolves

The Physical Symbolism of Wolves

As I’ve mentioned earlier, wolves represent an internal struggle deep down inside all of us.

It is the conflict between our predatory, natural, aggressive instincts and our Higher Consciousness.

It represents the animalistic side of us clashing with our moral compass.

A lot of people would rather get rid of the wolf aspect.

That would be a big mistake!

Wolves, in spiritual symbolism, represent the need for guidance.

You don’t get rid of whatever qualms or worries you have about getting proper guidance by tricking yourself or deluding yourself into thinking that you don’t need guidance at all.

Do you see how this works?

This is why it is important to embrace the wolf.

Don’t let it get the better of you, but embrace the fact that it is part of you, and this means exploring your internal mysticism.

A lot of people cringe psychologically when they think of wolves, just the same as they think of dark forests.

They think of those symbols as indicating places that you just don’t go and thoughts that you don’t just think.

That would be a mistake!

You would be running away from your power if you did that because this powerful animal exists within you precisely because it can lead you to so many good things.

Its power and energy are precisely what you need to reach the summit of your full potential as a human being, but it has to be controlled.

But for that to happen, you must stop denying it.

Traditional Meanings of Wolf Dreams

Traditional Meanings of Wolf Dreams

In some cultures, a wolf dream represents good fortune in your waking life.

It is not a typical good fortune symbol, though.

Instead, the wolf represents fortune that can only be unlocked after braving some sort of challenge.

Maybe you have to go through a trying time in your life, and once everything has been broken down or burned down and reduced to ashes, then you see the glimmers of gems left in ruins.

It is no surprise that people who come across this type of interpretation of wolf dreams become fearful.

They want the gems at the end.

They want the money.

They want positive change.

But they don’t want to go through the process.

In reality, it’s the process that actually enriches you because a lot of the things that you’re hanging on to for dear life are actually clutter.

You fill your mind with all sorts of junk.

Every single second you spend on TikTok is a second you expose yourself to all sorts of junk.

And if you’re not careful, a lot of this junk becomes permanent fixtures in your spiritual aspect.

Before you know it, all of this starts to erode your self-confidence because you’re thinking:

“Why am I not as rich as these people?

Why am I not as interesting?

And so on and so forth.”

Maybe it’s time to let go.

Don’t be afraid of the fire because it brings liberation.

It also brings finality.

Other Possible Biblical Meanings of Wolves in Dreams

Other Possible Biblical Meanings of Wolves in Dreams

Your subconscious mind is trying to tell you that something important is happening in your waking life by showing you a wolf dream.

One aspect of this involves the act of silencing.

I’m not talking about somebody putting their hand across your mouth and gagging you.

I’m talking about something else.

I’m talking about people with who you feel so emotionally connected that you would bend over backward to avoid telling them the truth.

This emotional conflict plays out in many relationships because we feel that a special person in our life cannot handle the truth, so we become part of the lie.

We become part of their chorus of “yes people” that give in and reinforce whatever delusion that they’re trying to pull on themselves.

Please understand that you’re not doing them any favors when you do that.

In fact, you’re part of the problem.

If you want to be a real friend or a real loving family member, tell them the truth.

It’s gonna hurt.

But the good news is that there are many different ways to tell the truth and many ways to lead the person to open their eyes fully.

One of the best ways to do this is to make it seem like it came from them, which you can do by simply asking the right questions.

Regardless, it has to happen because you have to overcome this struggle with untruth, not only with the lies you tell yourself but with the lies that you want other people to echo back to you.

Many people fill their lives with “choir members” of their lies.

They don’t really care about your family members or your friends as long as they are repeating the lies you want to tell yourself.

You have to break free.

As 1 Peter 2:21 says:

“For even hereunto were ye called: because Christ also suffered us for us, leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps.”

You have to overcome the struggle.

It’s part of your calling.

Life is suffering.

It’s not necessarily a bad thing because it’s the suffering that frees us.

It’s the suffering that makes us see what is really important and what our destructions and flat-out lies are.

The Biblical Meaning of a Lone Black Wolf Dream

The Biblical Meaning of a Lone Black Wolf Dream

If the black wolf in your dream is a lone wolf, your subconscious is trying to let you know that you’re not ready to face a reality that you know exists.

At the back of your head, you know what the real score is.

Stop playing games with yourself!

But the sad fact is that this black wolf image suggests that you lack the self-confidence to actually recognize, acknowledge, and ultimately embrace the truth.

The good news is you don’t have to do it alone.

You have a Higher Power you can always turn to.

As Hebrews 4:16 tells us the Biblical meaning of a lone, black wolf dream in the context of self-confidence:

“Let us then approach God’s throne of grace with confidence, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help us in our time of need.”

Biblical Dream Analysis of a White Wolf

Biblical Dream Analysis of a White Wolf

A white wolf can represent purity.

But don’t for a moment think that purity in of itself necessarily means something good.

White wolves can also represent ruthless behavior, negative thinking, and the state of mind where you have just given up trying to control your inner drives.

We all have evil intentions.

I know that can make quite a shock to some people.

But it’s my hope and my dream that, eventually, that self-delusion will wear out.

The sooner we pay close attention to our evil intentions, the more we will be able to deal with them effectively.

As Ephesians 5:11 says:

“Do not participate in the unfruitful deeds of darkness, but instead even expose them…”

How can you expose darkness when you refuse to deal with the darkness inside you?

This is not a rhetorical question.

This is one of the most important questions individuals could ever face.

White wolves, in this context, are symbols of sin.

The Spiritual Dream Analysis of Seeing a Red-Eyed Wolf or Red Wolves

The Spiritual Dream Analysis of Seeing a Red-Eyed Wolf or Red Wolves

As I’ve mentioned earlier, to see a white wolf that has red eyes, that’s an albino.

You basically have to treat it like a regular-colored wolf.

On the other hand, if you see a red-eyed wolf or a red wolf, you have to wrap your head around the concept of the “evil eye.”

I know this is probably going to shock some people but not everybody.

In fact, most people already know this: People are made insecure by your success.

Whenever something good happens to you, you can bet that at least one person in your circle of friends, family members, neighbors, co-workers, or whatnot won’t be happy about it.

There’s a reason for this: Their life is shit.

Why would somebody else’s life be better if theirs is shit and they’re going through hell?

So they have this negative energy flowing through them when they see your happiness, when they see you showing the best aspects of your life on your Facebook timeline.

And if you choose to be blind to this, it’s only a matter of time until the evil eye gets to you.

This is why in Mediterranean cultures particularly, people have come up with all sorts of traditional methods and symbologies to deal with the evil eye.

Envy, jealousy, and covetousness don’t just remain locked in the human heart forever left to be unexpressed.


It’s gonna work out in your actions because the more you think about something, the higher the chance that someday, somehow, at someplace, you will talk about it.

And when you talk about it enough time, eventually, it has a way of working into your actions.

You may be thinking:

“Well, I’m just a small person.

I’m just another face in the crowd.

Nobody really knows me, and I have no power.”

That’s what you think!

Think of a small radio signal out in the middle of nowhere.

It just starts sending out this signal, and pretty soon, somewhere by chance, another radio station picks up on that.

Radio stations can relay signals, and pretty soon, other stations are relaying your signals.

Nobody knows where it originally came from.

Nobody knows the original context.

But there they are, sending these signals!

So when somebody has developed envy, negative emotions, or whatever you did doesn’t sit quite well with them, it will resonate with the rest of the Universe, and it will come back to you.

So be aware of the evil eye and think of what you can do to deal with it.

Biblical Meaning of Wolves in Dreams in Relation to Your Personal Waking Life

Biblical Meaning of Wolves in Dreams in Relation to Your Personal Waking Life

Your personal waking life’s nature is not something that you should just handle casually, nor is it something that you should just dismiss.

A lot of people just say:

“Well, I have these inner instincts.

I think these wild thoughts.

I say things randomly from time to time, and I’m sorry but if you’re hurt, deal with it.

It is my identity.”

Jude 1:19 says that there are “people who divide you, who follow mere natural instincts who do not have the Spirit.”

The Spirit is the Universal Law, and the Spirit can only grow in your heart if you let it.

The Spirit is what will change you.

As Jesus said:

“You can tell them from their fruits. Good trees do not bear bad fruit.”

We are all bad fruit until the Spirit changes us to the point internally that we start to bear good fruit because we have become good, not because of our own merit — because there’s none! — but because of God’s grace.

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